Flashes per Minute Regulations

ejwa

Member
I am just courious about the standards used from state to state about the number of flashes emergency, utility, and public safety vehicles (public and private owned) have to produce when their lights are in use. I am from Kentucky but I am not aware of KY having such regulations. Many older vehicles here still use the lights they were originally equipped with. I have just learned that Tennessee does have such standards and I have seen vehicle operators add additional lights to their original light configeration to make up the extra flashes. Any information would be appreciated.
 

Jarred J.

Archive Expert
Silver Supporter
we do not have flashing standards in TN.. our TCA only regulates "flashing, rotating, oscillating" lights.
 

Cleaning Traffic

Silver Supporter
I have seen regulations on brightness (candle power), even on placement, quantity, type and color, but not flashes to my knowledge. I will say this, there was concerns back when LED's came out (early 90's) of people having seizures when exposed to certain lighting, especially during roadside sobriety tests.
 

Cleaning Traffic

Silver Supporter
I have seen regulations on brightness (candle power), even on placement, quantity, type and color, but not flashes to my knowledge. I will say this, there was concerns back when LED's came out (early 90's) of people having seizures when exposed to certain lighting, especially during roadside sobriety tests.
Too boot: There have been cases of sober people failing sobriety tests due to being visually exposed to certain patterns/brightness of lights, which some claim certain flash patterns are designed to disorientate (incapacitate) people.
 

Nolines

Silver Supporter
If I remember correctly, years ago fla law used to specify so many candlepower rotating lights for use by volunteer firefighters... I think it was 50
 

CHIEFOPS

Senior Member
I have seen regulations on brightness (candle power), even on placement, quantity, type and color, but not flashes to my knowledge. I will say this, there was concerns back when LED's came out (early 90's) of people having seizures when exposed to certain lighting, especially during roadside sobriety tests.
Seizures were linked to strobes (and I'm not sure that was ever confirmed as fact) not LEDs, strobes have been in use since the 70s if not earlier, 1st gen LED emergency warning lights were introduced post-2000
 

Cleaning Traffic

Silver Supporter
Forgive me in advance, as I don't usually post facts to my posts (unless someone challenges me), as I assume most on here are fluent with the topics. Before I throw my links around, it makes NO difference what the light source is, its the brightness, pulsing, and colors that cause seizures (commonly known as photo-sensitivity). YES, this includes ALL LED lights, even those on emergency vehicles. In regards to LED's on police vehicles not being used until post 2000? Why would one think that when the LED (light emitting diode) was invented in the 50's (by GE). But being we live in a world full of false information being spread around, I decided to join the "fact checkers" group. It's important for history, the present, and the future, especially in public service industries, as their reputation (especially law enforcement officers) has been tarnished enough over false information being distributed about them. "Providing education, not argument"


https://www.epilepsysociety.org.uk/news/officers-turn-off-police-car-lights-for-girl-with-epilepsy-19-02-2016#.XdB1pFdKjIU


 

Mattdecker

Member
I am just courious about the standards used from state to state about the number of flashes emergency, utility, and public safety vehicles (public and private owned) have to produce when their lights are in use. I am from Kentucky but I am not aware of KY having such regulations. Many older vehicles here still use the lights they were originally equipped with. I have just learned that Tennessee does have such standards and I have seen vehicle operators add additional lights to their original light configeration to make up the extra flashes. Any information would be appreciated.
Where in SE KY are you from? I’m in Barren County. Good to see someone from Ky in the group.
 
California has its Title 13 patterns if I recall. Also SAE favors slower, solid flashes. You can actually choose to limit yourself to these patterns when you program Blueprint.
 

CHIEFOPS

Senior Member
Forgive me in advance, as I don't usually post facts to my posts (unless someone challenges me), as I assume most on here are fluent with the topics. Before I throw my links around, it makes NO difference what the light source is, its the brightness, pulsing, and colors that cause seizures (commonly known as photo-sensitivity). YES, this includes ALL LED lights, even those on emergency vehicles. In regards to LED's on police vehicles not being used until post 2000? Why would one think that when the LED (light emitting diode) was invented in the 50's (by GE). But being we live in a world full of false information being spread around, I decided to join the "fact checkers" group. It's important for history, the present, and the future, especially in public service industries, as their reputation (especially law enforcement officers) has been tarnished enough over false information being distributed about them. "Providing education, not argument"


https://www.epilepsysociety.org.uk/news/officers-turn-off-police-car-lights-for-girl-with-epilepsy-19-02-2016#.XdB1pFdKjIU


"cop lights cause a seizure" is not an LED cause epileptic seizure article.

While 911EP may have introduced their LED products in the mid 90s, my memory is they concentrated primarily on a traffic adviser lightbar. LEDs didn't really enter the mainstream of EV warning products, or certainly didn't start to catch on till after 2000.
 

tsquale

Site Minion
Platinum Supporter
ECCO/Code 3 makes a square one. tsquale posted a thread on a blue one he owns.
While 911EP may have introduced their LED products in the mid 90s, my memory is they concentrated primarily on a traffic adviser lightbar. LEDs didn't really enter the mainstream of EV warning products, or certainly didn't start to catch on till after 2000.
911ep introduced their Window LED in 1997 which used a similar housing to their window strobe. It came in steady burn and a single flashing mode (Now called 64 flash, as it had 64 LEDs and flashed). A short time later they introduced their traffic director / warning light lines and the rest followed.

Here is my 1997 Window LED
 

Cleaning Traffic

Silver Supporter
"cop lights cause a seizure" is not an LED cause epileptic seizure article.

While 911EP may have introduced their LED products in the mid 90s, my memory is they concentrated primarily on a traffic adviser lightbar. LEDs didn't really enter the mainstream of EV warning products, or certainly didn't start to catch on till after 2000.
I was challenged on the "use" in the 90's, not the "catch' but got your point. I dont rip and pull apart what I read and interpret it any differently than how its actually written. There is enough of that going on up at "the hill"

"cop lights cause a seizure" is not an LED cause epileptic seizure article.

While 911EP may have introduced their LED products in the mid 90s, my memory is they concentrated primarily on a traffic adviser lightbar. LEDs didn't really enter the mainstream of EV warning products, or certainly didn't start to catch on till after 2000.
No the other article you didn't reference does

No the other article you didn't reference does
Point of the article other article that you didnt reference is they shut off their lights for the child as a result from the medical research on LED's, which was in the other articles you didnt reference.
 

NPS Ranger

Veteran Member
Seizures were linked to strobes (and I'm not sure that was ever confirmed as fact) not LEDs, strobes have been in use since the 70s if not earlier, 1st gen LED emergency warning lights were introduced post-2000
Seizures were indeed attributed to strobes in the early years, I remember some NYC private ambulance companies in the 1970's had to change out their new Whelen 5300 strobe bars because "someone" claimed they could elicit seizure activity. Up until today EEG's still sometimes use strobe stimulation to screen for seizure activity.
 

Cleaning Traffic

Silver Supporter
Seizures were indeed attributed to strobes in the early years, I remember some NYC private ambulance companies in the 1970's had to change out their new Whelen 5300 strobe bars because "someone" claimed they could elicit seizure activity. Up until today EEG's still sometimes use strobe stimulation to screen for seizure activity.
Yes, totally agree with you on this. I was challenged on LED's (which can and do produce strobe-like pulses) NOT causing seizures. As stated previously, its not the "source" of the light that causes the seizures, its the pulsing (patterns), brightness, and color that causes the seizures (photo-sensitivity).
 

CHIEFOPS

Senior Member
The "cop lights cause a seizure" article concerns a search & seizure issue.
This is the first I've heard LEDs specifically linked to epileptic seizures, never too old to learn something new.
 
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ejwa

ejwa

Member
Where in SE KY are you from? I’m in Barren County. Good to see someone from Ky in the group.
Clay County. I currently live in Manchester but from Oneida. The truck I use for my profile is the original truck from the Oneida Volunteer Fire Dept.

I have seen regulations on brightness (candle power), even on placement, quantity, type and color, but not flashes to my knowledge. I will say this, there was concerns back when LED's came out (early 90's) of people having seizures when exposed to certain lighting, especially during roadside sobriety tests.
When I was a senior in high school, I did a descriptive speech for the English class using my dad's SVP 1166 tear drop dash light. I used a portable battery pack to power it. The last part of my speech was to use it and so I turned off the classroom lights and powered it up. This light only produces 80 fpm. Before I could finish the demostration, one of my classmates had to get up and turn the room lights back on. She said she was prone to seizures and she felt as if the light was beginning to trigger one right then. The thought of the 1166 triggering a seizure, even the older models before Star began production of making them with 175 fpm, never entered my mind.
 

Cleaning Traffic

Silver Supporter
Clay County. I currently live in Manchester but from Oneida. The truck I use for my profile is the original truck from the Oneida Volunteer Fire Dept.


When I was a senior in high school, I did a descriptive speech for the English class using my dad's SVP 1166 tear drop dash light. I used a portable battery pack to power it. The last part of my speech was to use it and so I turned off the classroom lights and powered it up. This light only produces 80 fpm. Before I could finish the demostration, one of my classmates had to get up and turn the room lights back on. She said she was prone to seizures and she felt as if the light was beginning to trigger one right then. The thought of the 1166 triggering a seizure, even the older models before Star began production of making them with 175 fpm, never entered my mind.
I had a FB2 with the flash shield on it in my man cave. Would turn it on for every touchdown. Guy would just turn away when he knew I was gonna hit the switch. Bothered him.
 

JazzDad

Just Another Faceless Member
Silver Supporter
For all the arguments about lights causing seizures - I just sit back and enjoy all the pretty flashing colours, man.
 

SeattleSAR

Senior Member
The "cop lights cause a seizure" article concerns a search & seizure issue.
This is the first I've heard LEDs specifically linked to epileptic seizures, never too old to learn something new.
Actually, even some video games come with a photo sensitivity warning. So I would side with the point of its not the source, it's the intensity and pattern.
 
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ejwa

ejwa

Member
we do not have flashing standards in TN.. our TCA only regulates "flashing, rotating, oscillating" lights.
Here is the video that brought up this thread. If you don't want to watch the whole thing watch between 1:00 and 2:00 minute marks.

 

Jarred J.

Archive Expert
Silver Supporter
@ejwa sounds like BS.. we have tow trucks with no lights, amazon pos lights, jet streams with one bulb working, aerodynics with burned out bulbs, led bars with all kinds of patterns. all are "state certified" wreckers and never heard any of them say ANYTHING about a FPM rating. if you want me to show you the TCA i will gladly show you it states "Amber rotating flashing or oscillating lights" Youtube comments arent law..
 

Jarred J.

Archive Expert
Silver Supporter
@ejwa this was taken from the "towing safety standards" which is the qualifications needed to be a tow company to be used as a TN highway Patrol rotation eligible service..

VIII. Equipment Requirements for Towing Vehicles:

A. Towing companies shall be responsible for carrying the equipment necessary for removal of glass and other debris from the highway. Per TCA 55-8-170, the driver of the towing vehicle is responsible for the removal of all debris from the highway.

1. Towing companies shall not place debris in a vehicle’s passenger compartment.

B. Emergency Equipment for each Towing Vehicle:
1. At least one (1) functional, amber-colored, and rotating or strobe type light (LED lights are also permissible) shall be permanently mounted on the top of the towing vehicle. The Department will approve no other color. All emergency flashers and directional lights showing to the front must be amber in color.


2. Sirens on towing vehicles are prohibited.

C. Additional Required Equipment:
1. At least one (1) heavy-duty push broom;
2. Flood lights mounted at a height sufficient to illuminate the scene at night;
3. One (1) shovel;
4. One (1) axe;
5. One (1) pinch bar, pry bar or crowbar;
6. One (1) set of bolt cutters;
7. Minimum of one (1) fully charged 20 lb, or two (2) fully charged 10 lb, fire extinguisher(s) having an Underwriters Laboratory (UL) rating of four (4) A: B: C: or more. The fire extinguisher must be securely mounted on the towing vehicle;
8. Minimum of one (1) 50 lbs. for a Class A, B, D towing vehicle, and a minimum of one (1) 100 lbs. of a fluid absorption compound for a Class C towing vehicle;
 
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ejwa

ejwa

Member
@ejwa this was taken from the "towing safety standards" which is the qualifications needed to be a tow company to be used as a TN highway Patrol rotation eligible service..

VIII. Equipment Requirements for Towing Vehicles:

A. Towing companies shall be responsible for carrying the equipment necessary for removal of glass and other debris from the highway. Per TCA 55-8-170, the driver of the towing vehicle is responsible for the removal of all debris from the highway.

1. Towing companies shall not place debris in a vehicle’s passenger compartment.

B. Emergency Equipment for each Towing Vehicle:
1. At least one (1) functional, amber-colored, and rotating or strobe type light (LED lights are also permissible) shall be permanently mounted on the top of the towing vehicle. The Department will approve no other color. All emergency flashers and directional lights showing to the front must be amber in color.


2. Sirens on towing vehicles are prohibited.

C. Additional Required Equipment:
1. At least one (1) heavy-duty push broom;
2. Flood lights mounted at a height sufficient to illuminate the scene at night;
3. One (1) shovel;
4. One (1) axe;
5. One (1) pinch bar, pry bar or crowbar;
6. One (1) set of bolt cutters;
7. Minimum of one (1) fully charged 20 lb, or two (2) fully charged 10 lb, fire extinguisher(s) having an Underwriters Laboratory (UL) rating of four (4) A: B: C: or more. The fire extinguisher must be securely mounted on the towing vehicle;
8. Minimum of one (1) 50 lbs. for a Class A, B, D towing vehicle, and a minimum of one (1) 100 lbs. of a fluid absorption compound for a Class C towing vehicle;

This is very similar to the KY Revised Statutes. I am including the entire statute but bolded the section in question. I appreciate your input.


189.910 Definitions for KRS 189.920 to 189.950.
(1) As used in KRS 189.920 to 189.950, "emergency vehicle" means any vehicle used for emergency purposes by:
(a) The Department of Kentucky State Police;
(b) A public police department;
(c) The Department of Corrections;
(d) A sheriff's office;
(e) A rescue squad;
(f) An emergency management agency if it is a publicly owned vehicle;
(g) An ambulance service, mobile integrated healthcare program, or medical first response provider licensed by the Kentucky Board of Emergency Medical Services, for any vehicle used to respond to emergencies or to transport a patient with a critical medical condition;
(h) Any vehicle commandeered by a police officer;
(i) Any vehicle with the emergency lights required under KRS 189.920 used by a paid or volunteer fireman or paid or volunteer ambulance personnel, or a paid or local emergency management director while responding to an emergency or to a location where an emergency vehicle is on emergency call;
(j) An elected coroner granted permission to equip a publicly or privately owned motor vehicle with lights and siren pursuant to KRS 189.920;
(k) A deputy coroner granted permission to equip a publicly or privately owned motor vehicle with lights and siren pursuant to KRS 189.920; or
(l) A conservation officer of the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.
(2) As used in KRS 189.920 to 189.950, "public safety vehicle" means public utility repair vehicle; wreckers; state, county, or municipal service vehicles and equipment; highway equipment which performs work that requires stopping and standing or moving at slow speeds within the traveled portions of highways; and vehicles which are escorting wide-load or slow-moving trailers or trucks.


189.920 Flashing lights and sirens.
(1) All fire department, rescue squad, or publicly owned emergency management agency emergency vehicles and all ambulances shall be equipped with one (1) or more flashing, rotating, or oscillating red lights, visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of five hundred (500) feet to the front of the vehicle, and a siren, whistle, or bell, capable of emitting a sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than five hundred (500) feet. This equipment shall be in addition to any other equipment required by the motor vehicle laws.
(2) All state, county, or municipal police vehicles and all sheriffs' vehicles used as emergency vehicles shall be equipped with one (1) or more flashing, rotating, or oscillating blue lights, visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of five hundred (500) feet to the front of the vehicle, and a siren, whistle, or bell, capable of emitting a sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than five hundred (500) feet. This equipment shall be in addition to any other equipment required by the motor vehicle laws.
(3) By ordinance, the governing body of any city or county may direct that the police or sheriffs' vehicles in that jurisdiction be equipped with a combination of red and blue flashing, rotating, or oscillating lights.
(4) All public safety vehicles shall be equipped with one (1) or more flashing, rotating, or oscillating yellow lights, visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of five hundred (500) feet to the front of the vehicle. Yellow flashing, rotating, or oscillating lights may also be used by vehicles operated by mail carriers while on duty, funeral escort vehicles, and church buses.
(5) All Department of Corrections vehicles used as emergency vehicles shall be equipped with one (1) or more flashing, rotating, or oscillating blue lights, visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of five hundred (500) feet to the front of the vehicle. The Department of Corrections vehicles shall not be equipped with or use a siren, whistle, or bell. The equipment prescribed by this subsection shall be in addition to any other equipment required by motor vehicle laws.
(6) (a) If authorized by the legislative body of a county, urban-county, charter county, consolidated local government, or unified local government:
1. All publicly owned county jail and regional jail vehicles used as emergency vehicles may be equipped with the one (1) or more flashing, rotating, or oscillating blue lights, visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of five hundred (500) feet to the front of the vehicle; and
2. An elected jailer or the chief administrator of a county or regional jail not managed by an elected jailer may equip one (1) personally owned vehicle with one (1) or more flashing, rotating, or oscillating blue lights, visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of five hundred (500) feet to the front of the vehicle.
(b) Publicly owned county jail or regional jail vehicles shall not be equipped with
or use a siren, whistle, or bell.
(c) The equipment prescribed by this subsection shall be in addition to any other equipment required by the motor vehicle laws.
(7) Red flashing lights may be used by school buses.
(8) No emergency vehicle, public safety vehicle, or any other vehicle covered by KRS 189.910 to 189.950 shall use any light of any other color than those specified by KRS 189.910 to 189.950. Sirens, whistles, and bells may not be used by vehicles other than those specified by KRS 189.910 to 189.950, except that any vehicle may be equipped with a theft alarm signal device which is so arranged that it cannot be used by the driver as an ordinary warning signal.
(9) Vehicles used as command posts at incidents may be equipped with and use when on scene, a green rotating, oscillating, or flashing light. This light shall be in addition to the lights and sirens required in this section.
(10) A personal vehicle used by a paid or volunteer firefighter, ambulance personnel, or emergency services director who is responding to an emergency shall display the lights required in subsection (1) of this section.
(11) An elected coroner may equip a publicly or privately owned motor vehicle, or both, with flashing, rotating, or oscillating red and blue lights and a siren meeting the requirements of this section solely for the purpose of responding to a report of the death of a human being subject to the following terms and conditions:
(a) The coroner makes a written request to the legislative body of the county, urban-county, charter county, consolidated local government, or unified local government in which the coroner was elected to equip a publicly or privately owned motor vehicle, or both, with flashing, rotating, or oscillating red and blue lights and a siren meeting the requirements of this section, and that request is approved by the legislative body by ordinance or by court order;
(b) The coroner may use the lights and siren only while responding to the scene of the report of a death of a human being and shall not, KRS 189.940 to the contrary notwithstanding, exceed the posted speed limit; and
(c) The permission granted pursuant to this section shall expire upon the coroner leaving office or the legislative body revoking the authorization.
(12) A deputy coroner certified pursuant to KRS Chapter 72 may equip a publicly owned or privately owned motor vehicle, or both, with flashing, rotating, or oscillating red and blue lights and a siren meeting the requirements of this section solely for the purpose of responding to a report of the death of a human being, subject to the following terms and conditions:
(a) The deputy coroner has made a written request to the coroner to equip a publicly owned or privately owned vehicle with flashing, rotating, or oscillating red and blue lights meeting the requirements of this section and the coroner has approved the request in writing;
(b) The coroner makes a written request to the legislative body of the county, urban-county, charter county, consolidated local government, or unified local government in which the coroner is elected to permit the deputy coroner to
equip a publicly owned motor vehicle or privately owned motor vehicle, or both, and that request has been approved by the legislative body by ordinance or by court order;
(c) The deputy coroner may use the lights and siren only while responding to the scene of the report of the death of a human being and shall not, KRS 189.940 to the contrary notwithstanding, exceed the posted speed limit; and
(d) The permission granted pursuant to this section shall expire upon the coroner leaving office or the legislative body revoking the authorization.
 

Nolines

Silver Supporter
Now that looks like those laws written ages ago, did you check and see what the date is at the bottom of the page and any revisions as well? That looks like old halogen lighting standards of the day.
 

JazzDad

Just Another Faceless Member
Silver Supporter
My state says:
Acts 1945, 24th Leg., p. 1406, ch. 535, Sec. 1,

"... shall be at least four candlepower; in one candle of four power, two candles of two, or four individual candles. Care should be exercised to prevent the extinguishment of said candles should wind be present. ..."
 
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ejwa

ejwa

Member
(2) As used in KRS 189.920 to 189.950, "public safety vehicle" means public utility repair vehicle; wreckers; state, county, or municipal service vehicles and equipment; highway equipment which performs work that requires stopping and standing or moving at slow speeds within the traveled portions of highways; and vehicles which are escorting wide-load or slow-moving trailers or trucks.
Effective: June 27, 2019
History: Amended 2019 Ky. Acts ch. 100, sec. 23, effective June 27, 2019; and ch. 115, sec. 10, effective June 27, 2019. -- Amended 2011 Ky. Acts ch. 17, sec. 1, effective June 8, 2011; and ch. 99, sec. 1, effective June 8, 2011. -- Amended 2006 Ky. Acts ch. 173, sec. 24, effective July 12, 2006. -- Amended 1998 Ky. Acts ch. 226, sec. 106, effective July 15, 1998; and ch. 426, sec. 124, effective July 15, 1998. -- Amended 1996 Ky. Acts ch. 233, sec. 9, effective July 15, 1996. -- Amended 1992 Ky. Acts ch. 211, sec. 16, effective July 14, 1992. -- Amended 1986 Ky. Acts ch. 220, sec. 1, effective July 15, 1986; and ch. 419, sec. 1, effective July 15, 1986. -- Created 1970 Ky. Acts ch. 93, sec. 1.
Legislative Research Commission Note (6/27/2019). This statute was amended by 2019 Ky. Acts chs. 100 and 115, which do not appear to be in conflict and have been codified together.
Legislative Research Commission Note (6/8/2011). This section was amended by 2011 Ky. Acts chs. 17 and 99, which are in conflict. Under KRS 446.250, Acts ch. 99,
which was last enacted by the General Assembly, prevails
 
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ejwa

ejwa

Member
(12) A deputy coroner certified pursuant to KRS Chapter 72 may equip a publicly owned or privately owned motor vehicle, or both, with flashing, rotating, or oscillating red and blue lights and a siren meeting the requirements of this section solely for the purpose of responding to a report of the death of a human being, subject to the following terms and conditions: (a) The deputy coroner has made a written request to the coroner to equip a publicly owned or privately owned vehicle with flashing, rotating, or oscillating red and blue lights meeting the requirements of this section and the coroner has approved the request in writing; (b) The coroner makes a written request to the legislative body of the county, urban-county, charter county, consolidated local government, or unified local government in which the coroner is elected to permit the deputy coroner to equip a publicly owned motor vehicle or privately owned motor vehicle, or both, and that request has been approved by the legislative body by ordinance or by court order; (c) The deputy coroner may use the lights and siren only while responding to the scene of the report of the death of a human being and shall not, KRS 189.940 to the contrary notwithstanding, exceed the posted speed limit; and (d) The permission granted pursuant to this section shall expire upon the coroner leaving office or the legislative body revoking the authorization.
KRS 189.920

Effective:June 8, 2011 Amended 2011, Ky. Acts ch. 17, sec. 2, effectiveJune 8, 2011; and ch. 99, sec. 2, effectiveJune 8, 2011. -- Amended 2006, Ky. Acts ch. 173, sec. 25, effective July 12, 2006. -- Amended 1998, Ky. Acts ch. 226, sec. 107, effective July 15, 1998. -- Amended 1992 Ky. Acts ch. 211, sec. 17, effective July 14, 1992. -- Amended 1986 Ky. Acts ch. 419, sec. 2, effective July 15, 1986. -- Amended 1984 Ky. Acts ch. 55, sec. 1, effective July 13, 1984. -- Created 1970 Ky. Acts ch. 93, sec. 2.

Legislative Research Commission (6/8/2011). This section was amended by 2011 Ky. Acts chs. 17 and 99, which do not appear to be in conflict and have been codified together.
 

Nolines

Silver Supporter
And there you have it, those laws were created in 1970, according to what you posted, so in reference to the days of incandescent and halogen lights of the day.
 
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ejwa

ejwa

Member
And there you have it, those laws were created in 1970, according to what you posted, so in reference to the days of incandescent and halogen lights of the day.
To be honest, I prefer the sealed beam and rotator lights. I will leave the LEDs for my little boys Paw Patrol sneakers.

 

Nolines

Silver Supporter
The government basically put the glass industry out of the automotive business, and lighting just so we can burn up fossil fuels that much quicker to make them money. In my opinion!
 

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